Petrol Jeans For Men DefinitionSource(Google.com.pk)
Chemical structure of indigo dye, the blue of blue jeans.
For more information on dyeing, refer to denim and the discussion there of using pigment dyes.
Pre-shrinking of jeans
Young people wearing a variety of jean styles, including carpenter jeans, bootcut jeans, drainpipe jeans and lowrise jeans. (Rome, 2008)
Levi Strauss first marketed preshrunk jeans, which did not shrink further after purchase, allowing the consumer to buy his or her correct size, in 1963
Used look created by sandblasting
Consumers wanting jeans that appear worn can buy jeans that have been specially treated. To give the fabrics the worn look, sandblasting is often used. Sandblasting has the risk of causing silicosis to the workers, and in Turkey, more than 5,000 workers in the textile industry have been stricken with this disease, and 46 people are known to have died. Some companies have announced they are banning the use of sandblasting.
A typical pair of blue jeans consumes 919 gallons of water during its life cycle (this includes the water to irrigate the cotton crop, manufacture the jeans, and the numerous washes by the consumer). Because cotton is the world's biggest nonfood crop, and water shortages are a growing global trend, some jean companies are looking into ways to reduce the amount of water needed in their production of jeans—from field to factory.
Care and wear
Despite most jeans being “pre-shrunk”, they are still sensitive to slightly further shrinking and loss of coloring from being washed. The Levi Strauss company recommends avoiding washing jeans as much as possible. Carl Chiara, Levi Strauss director of brand and special projects, has a credo: The less you wash your jeans, the better your jeans become. These and other suggestions to avoid washing jeans where possible have encountered criticism. Cory Warren, editor of LS&Co. Unzipped, clarifies in a response to such a criticism:
Our advice is to wash less often, but clearly, you have to judge for yourself what’s appropriate. Hot day, dirty job? Wash your jeans. Please! Cold day, office job? Maybe you can wear them twice or more before they go back to the washing machine. Personally, if I wear a pair of jeans to work on Friday — cool climate, office job — I tend to wear them on Saturday. And if Saturday is spent indoors and I’m not spilling food all over myself, I might even wear them on Sunday.
Jeans were introduced to the USSR in 1957, during the World Festival of Youth and Students. Moscow and Leningrad were the first cities to get them, appearing before any foreign students or tourists came along. These two capitals were left more often by delegations abroad. From here - the western things before all appeared at inhabitants of these cities moreover a number of ports - Odessa, Kaliningrad. And in these cities "Berezka" where in the range there were also jeans began to appear in 1964 for the first time. In the same years jeans started being mentioned in Vasily Aksenov, Evgeny Evtushenko's works. In 1962 during Khrushchev known meeting with the creative intellectuals, that reproached Voznesensky that Voznesensky was on a meeting in jeans.
The word "selvage" comes from the phrase "self-edge", the natural edge of a roll of fabric. In this case, denim made on old-style shuttle looms. These looms weave fabric with one continuous cross thread (the weft) that is passed back and forth all the way down the length of the bolt. As the weft loops back into the edge of the denim it creates this “self-edge” or Selvage. Selvage is desirable because the edge can’t fray like lower grade denims that have separate wefts which leave an open edge that must be stitched. Shuttle looming is a more time-consuming weaving process that produces denim of a tighter weave resulting in a heavier weight fabric that lasts.
Shuttle looms weave a more narrow piece of fabric, and thus a longer piece of fabric is required to make a pair of jeans (approximately 3 yards). To maximize yield, traditional jean makers use the fabric all the way to the selvage edge. When the cuff is turned up the two selvage edges, where the denim is sewn together, can be seen. The selvage edge is usually stiched with colored thread: green, white, brown, yellow, and red (red is the most common). Fabric mills used these colors to differentiate between fabrics. Most selvage jeans today are dyed with synthetic indigo, but natural is available in smaller niche denim labels. Loop dying machines feed a rope of cotton yarn through vats of indigo dye and then back out. The dye is allowed to oxidize before the next dip. Multiple dips create a deep dark indigo blue.
In response to increased demand for jeans in the 1950's, American denim manufacturers replaced the old shuttle style looms with modern projectile looms. The new looms produced fabric faster and wider (60-inches or wider), yet lighter and less durable. Synthetic dyeing techniques along with post-dye treatments were introduced to control shrink and twist.
Jeans were, at the time and to this day, highly prized among those who were lucky enough to be able to afford them. Often smuggled by Soviet athletes, singers, and bureaucrats coming back from the U.S., they epitomized Western freedom of expression.Blue jeans are casual pants made from denim, noted for their strength and comfort. They have been worn by sailors and California gold miners as sturdy work pants, by the young as a statement of their generation, and by the fashionable, who are conscious of the prestige conveyed by designer names.